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Consulship in the 19th Century - Consuls et services consulaires au XIXème siècle - Die Welt der Konsulate im 19. Jahrhundert 

Jörg Ulbert and Lukian Prijac (eds.). Hardcover, 17 x 24 cm, French / German / English, 522 pages, 14 figures, index, ISBN 3-934632-28-9, EAN 9783934632288, price € 49.90 US-$ 74.50 / £ 45.00

The consular institution arouse in the Middle Ages on the northern shores of the Mediterranean sea. Between 1650 and 1800, the major European states were increasingly active. The steady increase of trade, the expansion of colonial empires and the explosion of migration, but also the creation of new independent states caused an increase in consular activities around the world. Even states without access to the sea, such as Switzerland, Württemberg or Bavaria founded consulates - an institution that was once reserved for maritime powers.
Defending primarily his own country´s economic interests, sometimes playing a political role, supporting his countrymen,  the consul became a linchpin of Western expansion in the nineteenth century. Although the history of consular services was examined for certain countries and a number of individual positions, a comparative study about the consular institution in the 19th century does not exist so far. This volume, containing 38 articels on the consular services of 23 countries, makes an attempt to compare the different acitivies all over the world regarding structures, the evolution of networks, careers and salaries of the consuls, their relationships with the guardian organizations and the result of their work.

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